Съпоставителниизследвания / Contrastive Studies
АЛЕКСИЕВА, Бистра – Подчинени предикативни единици в английски и български език (Subordinate predication units in English and Bulgarian). 1977 (ІІ), № 4–5, 3–43.
The paper makes an attempt to build a paradigm of all the surface structure expressions of subordinate predication in English and Bulgarian and to study the correlations between them. Special attention is given to the „preposition + noun [+ OBJECT / – EVENT]“, in the surface structure of which both the noun and the verb are deleted. The analysed examples come from a corpus of 20 novels by British and American writers and their Bulgarian translations, as well as examples from newspapers translated by informants. The factors regulating the mechanism of generating implicit constructions of this type in English and their functional equivalents in Bulgarian are discussed. While in English this type of construction is fairly frequent, in Bulgarian it occurs with only few prepositions. This difference between the two languages is due 1) to the specific mechanism in English of narrowing the meaning of verbs by means of postfixes and the prepositions of the adverbial phrases modifying them, which is non-existent in Bulgarian, and 2) to the different semantic structure of English prepositions resulting from this.
АЛЕКСИЕВА, Невенка – Граматически и семантични фактори при определяне рода на английските заемки в български език (Grammatical and semantic factors in determining the gender of English loan-words in Bulgarian). 1977 (ІІ), № 4–5, 44–54.
This paper deals with the various grammatical and semantic factors which determine the gender of English loan-words in Bulgarian. The corpus consists of 180 nouns borrowed from English into Bulgarian. The study is based on the classification of formal and semantic gender determiners offered by J. Welna. This classification turns out to be applicable to Bulgarian, a language with a highly developed grammatical gender patterning. The formal factors affect the greater part of the loan-words but the semantic ones hold for Bulgarian just as well. The number of loan-words whose gender is semantically determined confirms the activity of the semantic elements in the process of gender assignment.
ДЯКОВА, Соня (Велико Търново) – Основни черти на безличните структури в английски и български език (General characteristics of the impersonal structures in English and Bulgarian). 1977 (ІІ), № 4–5, 55–60.
The impersonal structures in Modem English are usually one member sentences while in Bulgarian they are two-member sentences. To the structural variety of the impersonal forms in Modern Bulgarian corresponds mainly one structural type in English – Subject + Verb – in which the position of the subject is usually filled by it. The structural difference between the two languages is connected not only with the opposition one-member – two-member sentences but also with the different relations of the Bulgarian predicate to the secondary parts of the sentence. The paper offers a contrastive analysis of the impersonal constructions in the two languages.
КОВАЧЕВА, Мира – Семантико-синтактична структура на българското „студено ми е“ и английското „І аm cold“ – синхронно и диахронно изследване (Semantic-syntactic structure of English „I am cold“ and Bulgarian „студено ми e“ – a synchronic and diachronic study. 1977 (ІІ), № 4–5, 61–91.
The syntactic behaviour of English I am cold displays some peculiarities due to the fact that it comes from earlier me is cold. This construction is isomorphic with the corresponding phrases in other European languages. It is necessary to know the semantic-syntactic structure of this type of „impersonal“ constructions in order to gain insight into the mechanism of the change towards personal construction in Middle English. Using surface data from different languages the following predicate components have been detected: property assignment, identity, existence and location. In most European languages these relations are expressed by the verb of being. Rules are proposed for reaching surface structures like OE Cold is and me is cold, MdE It is cold. The transition to It is cold is connected with the change in the semantic structure of the verb to be. Me in Me is cold ceased to be interpreted as a Dative. The following factors are relevant in determining the surface form of an „impersonal meaning“: 1) the nature of the verb of being; 2) the way of expressing the notion of an interested person (Ethical Dative); 3) the presence/absence of a grammatical category of gender. Bulgarian is, so to say, a stage behind in all three items.
МОЛХОВА, Жана – Към въпроса за категорията преходност – непреходност в английски и български език (On the problem of the category transitivity – intransitivity in English and in Bulgarian). 1977 (ІІ), № 4–5, 92–113.
This paper deals with basically intransitive verbs appearing in transitive constructions. The analysis revealed that they are mainly expressive of an action performed by the human body. The transitive structure is highly compressed. We assume that transitivity and intransitivity are in binary opposition and that they are intimately related to other two components, i. e. agent and sufferer. In Bulgarian the respective verbs are purely intransitive. This points to a more rigid nature of the semantic structure and the configuration of its components. The idea expressed by the SVO surface structure of these verbs is rendered by a surface structure similar to the deep structure in English. This situation is due to the considerable flexibility of the semantic components of the English verb and the comparative rigidity of the same components of the Bulgarian verb.
ПЕНЧЕВА, Майя – Категорията род и названията за лица от мъжки и женски пол (съпоставително изследване върху материал от английски и български език). [The category of gender and the names of classes of persons of male and female sех (an English-Bulgarian contrastive study)]. 1977 (ІІ), № 4–5, 114–162.
This study examines the correlation between sex and gender in the two languages. Since there is no grammatical gender in English it is usually said that sex distinctions are purely semantic. In Bulgarian sex distinctions are often termed as grammatical. It is our belief that the expression of „sex“ is neither purely grammatical (in Bulgarian) nor purely semantic (in English). Structural, social and other factors are taken into consideration in the analysis of a corpus of about 3000 English and 2800 Bulgarian nouns, expressing „persons by profession, occupation or rank“. The final conclusion is that in expressing the distinctions of sex the similarities between English and Bulgarian are much greater than the differences. They may be attributed to the overpowering influence of social, historical and psychological factors which dominate over this semantic area.
ПЕНЧЕВА, Майя, Милена САВОВА – Наблюдения върху някои английски и български безлични конструкции, изразяващи природни явления (Observation on some impersonal constructions expressing natural phenomena in English and Bulgarian). 1977 (ІІ), № 4–5, 163–169.
It is the aim of this paper to discuss some impersonal constructions expressing natural phenomena in English and Bulgarian. The approach is generative. For the English language we postulate the presence in the Base of one lexical entry specified by a number of semantic features. In the Deep Syntax we get two representations – one nominal and one verbal. Each of these contains the semantic content of the lexical entry plus a number of additional features. When a sentence of this type is generated all semantic features appear in the Deep Syntax. In Bulgarian in the Deep Syntax we also have two representations but the procedure of generating the verbal variant is a one-stage process while that of the noun takes two stages. Although at first glance the constructions in the two languages look different there are substantial similarities both in the Deep Syntax and in the process of generating.
ПЕТКОВА, Вяра (Варна) – Английските заемки в българската морска терминология след Втората световна война и тяхната семантична конфигурация (English loan-words in Bulgarian maritime terminology after the Second World War and their semantic configuration). 1977 (ІІ), № 4–5, 170–179.
This paper deals with problems of semantic assimilation of English loanwords in Bulgarian Maritime Terminology. The interaction and correlation between the lexical meaning of both Bulgarian and English terms are analysed. Stress is laid on the fact that in passing from general usage into a special sphere of communication a word undergoes specialization. The analysis is diachronic and synchronic. Subject to the investigation are about 140 loan terms drawn from contracts of sea carriages, official documents and acts regulating merchant shipping in Bulgaria. The traditional classification of material loanwords, loan blends and calques is enlarged with that of the loanshifts-extensions and each group is subjected to semantic analysis. The results show that the semantics of the English loanwords is equivalent to that of their prototypes. The clarifying and proper interpretation of the semantics of late English loanwords will contribute to a more efficient mastering of the terms.
ПИПЕРКОВА, Искра – Личните местоимения в английски и български според признака на субективната оценка и обществените отношения (The personal pronouns in English and Bulgarian according to the subjective attitude and social relations). 1977 (ІІ), № 4–5, 180–190.
The paper deals with personal pronouns in English and Bulgarian. Bulgarian has two forms of the personal pronouns for the 2nd person, one being used as a marker of politeness and respect. Since English has lost the earlier distinction between thou and you it has to rely on other ways of expressing the subjective attitude of the speaker: forms of address, first name/surname, etc. Their usage is analysed on the basis of the type of social relations – either those of superiorityinferiority or equality. The closer the relations between the communicating sides the greater the phonetic or morphological reduction. Prosody is also an important element in communication. Word order also contributes to expressing relations of politeness. Context is very important in translating fiction from English into Bulgarian as it necessitates the translation of you either as ти or Вие. The adequate expression of the subjective attitude when translating from Bulgarian into English requires knowledge of everyday life, culture and social relations in the English speaking countries.
СТАМЕНОВ, Христо – Бележки върху рефлексивността в български и английски език (Remarks on reflexivization in Bulgarian and English). 1977 (ІІ), № 4–5, 191–213.
The problem is first related to case grammar. A distinction between formal-syntactic and semantico-syntactic transitivity is made. The reflexive transformation is described including some surface structure differences between the two languages (the distribution of the features for number, person and gender). The reflexivization of the dative object in English and Bulgarian is also discussed, as well as the status of the short forms of the Bulgarian reflexive pronouns. The difficulties in describing reflexivization within the prepositional phrase in English are pointed out in comparison with Bulgarian. The syntactic scope of the reflexive transformation and the differences in expressing „reflexive“ possession in the two languages are also touched upon. Finally, the more strictly grammatical nature of reflexivization in Bulgarian is underlined as opposed to English.